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APD Definitions

APD Definitions

The part of the brain concerned with sensorimotor coordination, balance, and familiar sequences of movement

Air-conducted sound Sound that is received via the ear canal through sound pressure waves
Audio-vocal feedback mechanism The way in which we listen to our own voice to modify or self-correct our volume, pace, pitch or tone
Auditory discrimination The ability to perceive subtle differences in sound, essential to language
Auditory hypersensitivity The inability to inhibit sound so that all sound is received in the ear with equal weighting
Auditory memory The ability to maintain auditory information in short-term memory for later use
Auditory overload The feeling of being overwhelmed by auditory information
Auditory processing The brain’s ability to attach meaning to what is heard
Auditory sequencing The ability to perceive sounds or groups of sounds in the order in which they were given
Bone-conducted sound Sound that is received via muscle movements and sound pressure waves hitting the body
Central nervous system The part of the nervous system controlled by the brain and spinal cord
Cerebellum
Cochlea The spiral shaped tube in the inner ear responsible for hearing
Coordination The ability of the muscles to move smoothly and harmoniously
Electronic Ear The piece of equipment used in the Tomatis Method that filters and gates sound, accentuating certain sound frequencies
Expressive communication The ability to communicate oneself effectively
Filtered sound Sound that has had certain frequencies removed
Frequency The pitch of a sound, which may be high or low – this is measured in hertz (cycles per second)
Gating Manipulating sound so that the muscles in the middle ear are exercised via contraction and relaxation
Hearing The ability of the ear to perceive sound
Listening The active intention to attend to specific information, a function controlled by the brain
Motor coordination (fine) The ability to coordinate precise movements of the body, especially to manipulate small objects (eg. scissors)
Motor coordination (gross) The ability to coordinate large movements of the body, especially to perform physical skills like running, jumping and riding a bike
Neurological Relating to the brain
Neurological pathways The routes by which information is transmitted through the brain
Neuro Developmental Therapy (NDT) A type of therapy designed to inhibit primitive reflexes and encourage the maturation of postural reflexes
Periodicity Music waveforms that repeat regularly at appropriate intervals, between 10 and 60 seconds
Phoneme The smallest unit of sound
Phonemic discrimination The ability to perceive differences in phonemes
Phonological awareness The ability to recognise and understand the multitude of phonemic sequences that combine to produce the words used in spoken language
Pinna The outer part of the ear, which simultaneously amplifies and reduces the volume of received sound
Plasticity The ability of the brain to be re-shaped
Receptive communication The ability to comprehend others’ communication effectively
Screening The ability to selectively listen to certain auditory information while inhibiting background noise
Sensory integration The way in which the brain combines multiple pieces of sensory information to form understandings of and responses to the environment
Sound localisation The ability to detect the origin of a sound
Spatial awareness The appreciation of how much space one occupies and how to move appropriately within that space
Spatial-temporal reasoning The ability to integrate information about time and space to respond appropriately (eg. knowing when to clasp your hands to catch a ball based on how far away the thrower is)
Vestibule The part of the inner ear responsible for integrating sensory information and maintaining balance and coordination
Visual tracking The smooth movement of the eye that enables people to read, look back and forth between two sources, and continuously watch a moving object